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It's not just humans: cats can get dementia, too. Unfortunately, cats that are lucky to live a long life may experience some level of cat dementia, also known as cognitive dysfunction. Geriatric cats that appear to be "confused" could be experiencing something more than "just old age."
Older Cats: A New Field of Study
Feline dementia is a tricky disease and is sometimes under-diagnosed, under-treated and misunderstood by veterinarians and pet parents alike. Now that cats are living longer than ever before, diagnoses are becoming more and more common.
Cats with dementia show signs similar to humans with senile dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Veterinary professionals are starting to wonder whether there's something they can do about cat dementia.
The Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction in Cats
Like any other organ, the brain deteriorates with age. The ageing feline brain often starts to show signs of wear and tear between the ages of 10 to 15, after which these signs may seem to accelerate as the disease progresses and the signs become more noticeable.
The typical signs of cat dementia include:
- Generalised disorientation (confusion about where they are, aimless wandering, missing cues associated with scheduled events like feeding time)
- Reduced activity and decreased interest in play
- Changes in the sleep-wake cycle (remaining awake throughout the whole night and sleeping all through the day, heedless of human activity)
- Reduced interest in food, water, feline housemates and human interaction
- Going outside the litter box
- Vocalising (meowing loudly, especially at night)
Veterinary medicine is still searching for answers regarding feline dementia. Is feline dementia attributable to a specific neurological disorder? Is it identical to the process observed in people? Can it be treated?
Is It Feline Dementia or Another Condition?
There are a variety of geriatric diseases with signs similar to those of feline dementia. Since they tend to occur during the same stage of life, a thorough evaluation by a veterinarian is warranted to ensure that your cat receives the proper treatment and care. It’s always better to catch things early!
An overactive thyroid gland that produces too much thyroid hormone is a common disorder diagnosed in older cats. An excess of thyroid hormone can interfere with organ function and may even damage the brain, explains The Animal Trust. One sign is increased appetite, so you may notice your cat begging for food incessantly. It can also lead to hyperactivity and increased vocalisation, which could be confused with dementia. Your veterinarian may perform a blood test to check out your cat's thyroid function.
Cats can get high blood pressure, too. According to Cats Protection, it usually happens as a result of another health condition like kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. High blood pressure can lead to blindness and result in anxiety and confusion. Your veterinarian can take a blood pressure reading to help rule this out.
Deafness and Sensory Decline
Deaf cats don't know their own meow volume. This can factor into your cat's behaviour, much like it does with older people who tend to become more disoriented when auditory cues in the environment become less perceptible to them. In much the same way, blindness will also contribute to an older cat's confusion.
Osteoarthritis or Other Causes of Chronic Pain
It's really hard to identify pain in cats since most cats don't express pain or discomfort in the same way humans do. Most choose to hide their discomfort as a survival mechanism. However, older cats who suffer from painful conditions like osteoarthritis may be more hesitant to step into the litter box due to discomfort and may have accidents outside the litterbox. They may also be less active and willing to play.
Brain Tumors or Other Neurological Conditions
Brain tumours are a possibility for older cats who show signs of dementia. Tumours can lead to seizures and collapse, but all kinds of abnormal behaviour such as incoordination or reacting to 'invisible' objects are suspect, too. Many other neurological diseases can also lead to signs similar to those seen in cats with dementia.
How to Help Your Older Cat
Any senior cat with signs of dementia should ideally be tested for all the diseases that can mimic or accompany it. If your cat is suffering from feline dementia or confusion, here's what you can do to keep them safe and comfortable:
- Keep them indoors and be aware of roaming.
- Maintain a regular feeding and home lighting schedule to help keep them oriented.
- Avoid major household changes (such as adopting a new pet or moving).
- Give them food with vitamin E and antioxidants, both important nutrients for brain health.
- Make litter boxes extra-accessible with a ramp or a shallow tray.
- Offer simple geriatric cat niceties like extra beds and accessible warm spots.
- See your vet for regular care.
It's critical for any cat who shows any signs of dementia to see a veterinarian as soon as possible. It's important for pet parents to know that their cats may not be "just getting old" — they may be experiencing a true disease that requires a little extra care. Because it's not as easy to determine if your cat is confused as it is in humans, understanding your cat's normal behaviour is an essential first step in diagnosing and managing cat dementia.
Dr. Patty Khuly
Dr. Patty Khuly is an honors graduate of both Wellesley College and the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. She received her MBA at The Wharton School of Business as part of the prestigious VMD/MBA dual-degree program. She's now the proud owner of Sunset Animal Clinic in Miami, Florida. But that's not all. Dr. K is a nerdy reader, avid knitter, hot yoga fanatic, music geek, struggling runner, and indefatigable foodie. She lives in South Miami with three dogs, countless cats, two rescued goats and a hilarious flock of hens.
Reviewed by Dr. Hein Meyer, DVM, PhD, Dipl-ECVIM-CA and Dr. Becky Mullis, DVM, DACVIM (Nutrition)